Plasma Remediation Technology for Environmental Protection

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That waste includes contaminated environmental media such as soil and water, as well as rags and debris. The guidance provides examples of typical and worst case PCB waste cleanup situations. Target Compounds This list of emerging contaminants for the National Reconnaissance of Emerging Contaminants in US Streams see Emerging Contaminants Project is divided into the following categories: biogenics, pharmaceuticals, sterols, insecticides, plasticizers, detergant metabolites, fire retardents, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fossil fuel and fuel combusion indicators , antioxidants, tetracyclines, Fluoroquinolones, Macrolides, Sulfonamides, human prescription drugs, and miscellaneous others.

Tire Cleanup Guidebook Developed by EPA Region 5 and the state of Illinois, the guidebook targets tire manufacturers, state and local government, regulators, auto recyclers and collectors. It includes information on example scrap tire cleanup programs, legal considerations and property issues, cost recovery, local and regional markets for scrap tires, cleanup planning, selecting contractors, and project management.

Chemical nominations came from within EPA, from other U. In Phase III, ToxCastTM will expand the list to thousands of environmental chemicals, delivering an affordable, science-based system for decision-makers. However, because disagreements and disputes are fact-specific, a fluid rather than a one-size-fits-all process may at times be necessary. This memorandum sets out principles clarifying and reinforcing the importance of adhering to agreed-upon FFA informaland formal dispute timelines. These principles support Recommendation 18 of the Administrator's Superfund Task Force Recommendations report, released on July 25, EPA developed these amendments taking into account Federal agency and state comments.

Superfund Task Force Recommendations This report highlights the accomplishments of the Superfund Task Force efforts and outlines next steps for the recommendations that remain open. The ongoing recommendations, to be completed by September , demonstrate a continued commitment by EPA to engage partners and stakeholders at all levels in making cleanup and land revitalization decisions that will provide future generations with a cleaner and healthier environment.

Presentations Name Link Back to Top.

Dense Medium Plasma Remediation of VOCs in Groundwater

Training, Presentations, and Briefings Art and Science of Stormwater Retrofitting Web-based, On Demand The focus of this 2-hour EPA course is retrofitting stormwater management practices into watersheds that have already been developed. This approach can help restore watersheds by providing stormwater treatment in locations it was not originally included. Asbestos Activities Training Classroom Offered by Federal Occupational Health, classroom training is available related to asbestos abatement, asbestos inspection, asbestos operations and maintenance, and asbestos awareness.

The courses vary in duration depending on the complexity of the material being addressed. This is course Comprehensive Environmental Sampling: Methodology, Practice, and Analysis Classroom, Multiple Offerings This course is designed for individuals performing field sampling of environmental media including soil and other solids; surface and groundwater; sediment; indoor and ambient air; solid and hazardous waste; and chemicals of commerce for the analysis of a broad range of analytical methods as established by a variety of regulatory and standards organizations.

IT includes a discussion of common problems found on construction sites. Contaminant Vapor Migration and Intrusion Classroom, Multiple Offerings This course provides an overview of the vapor intrusion exposure pathway including its scientific foundation, regulatory framework, and the technical aspects of investigating and remediating contaminated vapor sites. The class will cover topics such as: screening sites for potential vapor intrusion concerns, conducting field investigations, sampling techniques, data analyses, exposure point calculations, the Johnson and Ettinger predictive model, vapor intrusion risk assessment, vapor intrusion mitigation, and remediation.

Participants will work through practical problems and typical site scenarios based on case studies of established vapor intrusion sites. This course provides a comprehensive introduction for those new to the field, and will also provide insights, data analysis techniques, and the latest research for more advanced participants. Environmental Forensics-Site Characterization and Remediation Classroom, Multiple Offerings This course will provide attendees with a wide array of analytical techniques available to fingerprint a variety of contaminants and to address the basic questions involved in any environmental forensics study.

Environmental Remediation Technologies Classroom, Multiple Offerings Offered by the Army Corps of Engineers, this course provides the student with a practical understanding of various containment, ex-situ, and in-situ technologies. The information is intended for use by geologists, engineers, chemists, and other professionals involved in project planning, technology selection, design, operation, and optimization of remediation technologies for in-house projects or oversight of contractor efforts on environmental restoration sites.

This cycle includes three phases: Planning, Implementation, and the Assessment. The DQO process contained in the Planning Phases, plans environmental data collection efforts to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and defensibility of decisions in a resource-effective manner. Presented by the primary author of the revision, this course will showcase new features of the guidance, as well as recommended changes to current statistical practice.

In addition to reviewing the design and evaluation of statistical programs for groundwater monitoring, participants will also learn the benefits of checking their assumptions in order to run the most effective statistical tests. Evaluating Data Quality for Decision Making Classroom, Multiple Offerings Class will address the following aspects: data reduction for efficient assessment assessment of data validation output , compliance with regulatory and programmatic requirements, representativeness and completeness of the data set, fulfillment of data quality objectives, application and assessment of statistical methods in decision-making.


  1. Soil vapor extraction.
  2. Serial Port Complete - Pgmg and Circuits for ERS-232 and RS-485 Links and Ntwks.
  3. Environmental remediation;

Participants with one to two years of experience and who have taken the Fundamentals of Superfund and Remedial Process courses may derive the most benefit. This Course is not open to academia, contractors, consultants, or other private entities. This course is offered free of charge to all registrants who are confirmed to attend. Fundamental Contaminant Chemistry in Soil and Groundwater Classroom This two-day course includes an overview of key chemistry concepts associated with environmental contamination and provides a foundation for understanding contaminant fate and transport.

The training events will explore the key elements for characterizing and managing PFAS impacted sites. The training events are free for state and federal employees, academics, and public stakeholders. Introduction to Groundwater Investigations Classroom, Multiple Offerings This introductory course is designed to provide participants with information concerning hydrogeological processes and the necessary elements of a sound groundwater site investigation. Introductory Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Classroom, Multiple Offerings This course provides participants with the fundamentals of human health and ecological risk assessment as applied to the Superfund cleanup process.

Lead Activities Training Classroom Offered by Federal Occupational Health, classroom training is available related to lead abatement, lead inspection, lead paint repair and maintenance, and lead awareness. This presentation will present viable approaches for treating recalcitrant PFAS and recent related research activity. Technologies of particular focus include sorption, ion exchange, oxidation, sonolysis, and plasma treatment.

Challenges and limitations of these approaches, including the presence of precursors and co-contaminants and generation of byproducts will be discussed. The presentation will also highlight research activity at Clarkson University to advance and optimize PFAS treatment technologies, with a particular emphasis on treatment trains for more efficient and effective remediation.

Optimizing Remedy Selection and the Site Closeout Process Classroom, Multiple Offerings This class offered by the Navy will provide attendees with the necessary tools and information to make remedy selection decisions and achieve site closeout. Factors such as contaminant and media impacts, transfer mechanisms, applicable technologies and lifecycle design considerations will be emphasized.

Principles of Quality Assurance and Quality Control in Environmental Field Programs Classroom, Multiple Offerings Upon completion of the course, attendees will come away with tools for deciding how to assess environmental laboratory data, how to maximize data defensibility, and when an independent data validator is needed. The extensive hands-on exercises include working through a Quality Assurance Project Plan and setting up Excel worksheets to perform efficient assessments for standard analytical data. Renewable Energy on Contaminated Land: Tools for Local Governments Web-based, On Demand This webinar provides an overview of tools available to local governments to help them get renewable energy projects built on contaminated land in their community.

Included in the webinar are discussions about some of the recent tools developed by EPA, including two decision trees that were created to screen potentially contaminated and underutilized sites for solar and wind potential and a draft best practice guide for siting solar on landfills. Do you want to continue to work, or should your session close?

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Program Areas Executive Order Chemical Management. Climate Adaptation. Cultural Resources. Electronics Stewardship. Greenhouse Gases. High Performance Bldgs. Natural Resources. Pollution Prevention. Water Efficiency. Awards GreenGov Spotlight Comm. Hazardous Waste Mgmt. Members Login. Not a Member? Forgot your password? User profile or password need updating? The rule referred to as the "All Appropriate Inquiries" rule established specific regulatory requirements for conducting all appropriate inquiries into the previous ownership, uses, and environmental conditions of a property for the purposes of qualifying for certain landowner liability protections under CERCLA.

Includes guidance on using ADR in enforcement actions. Cleanups at Federal Facilities. This website provides information about contaminated federal facility sites in specific communities, access to technical fact sheets and tools and resources to help government agencies and their contractors fulfill cleanup obligations. This Act provides a Federal "Superfund" to clean up uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous-waste sites as well as accidents, spills, and other emergency releases of pollutants and contaminants into the environment.

This policy memorandum, dated 1 August , describes management controls that will be implemented to ensure that the recommendations in the Five-Year Review reports are tracked, monitored and implemented; provides guidance to Remedial Project Managers to ensure that the reviews are completed on time; outlines how EPA makes an independent decision on protectiveness; and confirms that Five-Year Reviews are generally enforceable under Federal Facility Agreements.

As part of the U. In this document, dated 1 December , the Department of Justice, said that the Pentagon had no legal grounds to resist cleanup orders from the EPA. This policy was updated in February and reflects the Association stand that federal facilities must comply with and be held to these same standards as private-sector facilities. Dated October 12, , the PCC Strategy is a management framework of goals, with recommended approaches and initiatives, that is designed to provide greater assurance that remedies put in place under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act CERCLA remain protective over the long-term.

The Office of Management and Budget OMB and the Council on Environmental Quality CEQ on September 7, , issued a joint memorandum calling for department and agency commitment to the goals identified in the Memorandum on Environmental Collaboration and Conflict Resolution, and the goals identified in related policy guidance. Protective Guidance for Perchlorate Contamination Cleanup. On January 26, , EPA issued new protective guidance for cleaning up perchlorate contamination recommending a preliminary clean-up goal for perchlorate of Guidance on the use of RCRA and other corrective action documents.

The focus of this act is to provide relief for small businesses from liability under CERCLA of , and to amend CERCLA to promote the cleanup and reuse of brownfields, to provide financial assistance for brownfields revitalization, to enhance State response programs, and for other purposes. Superfund Cleanup, Policies and Guidance. Agreement between the Defense Department and state regulators on requirements governing funding state regulatory oversight of military cleanups. Supporting Information and Tools. A tool for screening potentially applicable technologies for a remediation project.

Brownfield and Health Indicator Tool. Developed by Minnesota Brownfields and the Minnesota Department of Health this tool incorporates a series of indicators that address community health factors and aims to streamline project decision-making process by providing a framework for stakeholders to identify and prioritize redevelopment goals. This EPA website is an adjunct to the EPA publication and provides a general outline of how to assess and clean up a brownfields site and introduce stakeholders to a range of technology options and available resources.

This is a free program where users can find out about the reactivity of substances or mixtures of substances. This system lets environmental professionals use the Internet to search, view, download, and print information about innovative remediation and characterization technologies. The goal of the Federal Facility Site Evaluation Project FFSEP was to determine the assessment and cleanup status of federally-owned sites and to reinvigorate the assessment and evaluation process if a site was determined to be stalled.

Field Sampling and Analysis Technologies Matrix. Developed by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable FRTR , the Matrix and its accompanying Reference Guide provide project managers and site stakeholders with information for use in identifying methods involving non-intrusive or minimally intrusive technologies in order to optimize sampling locations and minimize well installation. This map provides information about progress at a site, site description, who is responsible for a site, site controls, and points of contact.

This portal provides access to groundwater data from multiple, dispersed databases in a web-based mapping application. Recovery Potential Screening Website. This website provides technical assistance for restoration programs to help them consider where to invest their efforts for greater likelihood of success, based on the traits of their own geographic area's environment and communities. This tool guides interested parties through a process to screen sites for their suitability for solar photovoltaics or wind installations. Superfund Site Progress Profiles. Site information for NPL sites i.

SMARTe is a web-based decision support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land that means it will help you decide how to best redevelop land that has previously been used for something else. TAB EZ. This is a grant writing tool to be used for preparation of EPA brownfields grant proposals. Subscription Info. Military Environmental Forum. Subscription Information. Technology News and Trends. A newsletter about soil, sediment, and ground-water characterization and remediation technologies. CERCLA Section c requires EPA to establish and maintain this docket which contains information about Federal facilities that manage hazardous waste or from which hazardous substances have been or may be released.

Federal Facilities Library. The library is a repository of information about federal-facility restoration and reuse. Federal Facility Site Information. Five-Year Reviews Online. This site is the source for obtaining Five-Year Reviews, documents prepared by EPA to evaluate the implementation and performance of site remedies to determine if they remain protective of human health and the environment. Technical Support Project. An organization that promotes and facilitates public participation in the oversight of environmental activities at federal facilities, private "Superfund" sites, and Brownfields.

Emerging Contaminants EC Program. This EPA office helps accelerate the transfer of federal property by coordinating environmental cleanup activities and crafting innovative property transfer arrangements. This organization promotes the use of sustainable practices during implementation of remedial action activities with the objective of balancing economic viability, conservation of natural resources and biodiversity, and the enhancement of the quality of life in surrounding communities. The purpose of this center is to provide information about the use of innovative site investigation and cleanup technologies and strategies at brownfields and other land revitalization sites.

This DoD program aims to protect readiness, people and the environment by identifying and managing risks associated with the chemicals and materials DoD uses. The roundtable was established in as an interagency committee to exchange information and to provide a forum for joint action regarding the development and demonstration of innovative technologies for hazardous waste remediation. Lessons Learned. An annual summary of the progress accomplished under Superfund. This document summarizes the requirements and process for evaluating potential liability from environmental contamination, and will introduce readers to the larger context of environmental issues associated with real property transfers.

Citizen's Guides to Cleanup Methods. The Citizen's Guide series is a set of 21 fact sheets that describe, in general terms, cleanup methods used at Superfund and other sites. Climate Smart Brownfields. From EPA, this December manual is resource for communities that want to consider climate change as they assess, clean up, or redevelop brownfield sites. PBC works to reduce the risk by executing restoration cleanup projects with fixed objectives for a fixed price. The web site offers a thorough review of PBM, its component strategies, implementation and demonstration information, guidance, training, resources, and links.

Remediation Management of Complex Sites. Offered by the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Coucil ITRC , this guidance presents a recommended process for remediation management at complex sites, termed "adaptive site management. The focus of this site is assisting the government remedial project managers RPMs in the evaluation process and to enhance technology transfer among Federal agencies.

Return to Use Demonstration Projects. EPA is working with stakeholders at Superfund sites across the country that have been cleaned up yet remain vacant due to real or perceived barriers to their reuse. Superfund Community Involvement Toolkit. This toolkit is used for promoting successful community participation in the Superfund process.

This site contains information about Superfund's redevelopment programs, including case studies and success stories. Technology Focus. The Land Revitalization Initiative. EPA is undertaking an Agency-wide initiative to revitalize land by restoring and reusing contaminated, and potentially contaminated, sites. This award is given to recognize efforts to protect human health and the environment by cleaning up identified DoD sites in a timely, cost-efficient, and responsive manner. This EPA publication EPA R provide a general outline of how to assess and clean up a brownfields site and introduce stakeholders to a range of technology options and available resources.

Brownfields: The Basics. This site aids those who are new to the concept of Brownfields definitions, case studies, and information on how Brownfields redevelopment works. Released by National Association of Local Government Environmental Professionals NALGEP , this primer aids aid local governments in investigating whether renewable energy development may be the right choice for brownfields in their communities. This EPA guide walks decision-makers through six questions to determine whether infiltration or other stormwater management approaches are appropriate for a specific brownfield property.

This plan, dated October , describes a series of specific actions, new tools, and expanded partnership efforts EPA will launch over the next three years. State Brownfields and Voluntary Response Programs. State Brownfields and Voluntary Response Programs: An Update from the States This September document EPAR explores the evolving landscape of state environmental, financial, and technical programs, including the incentives designed to promote brownfields cleanup and redevelopment.

This tool looks at multiple components of state brownfields and voluntary response program s , and provides a synopsis of each state's response program s and contact information. Sustainable Redevelopment of Brownfields Case Studies. Developed at the University of Illinois, these case studies focus on projects that are recipients of funding under U.

This program is a part of EPA's Brownfields Initiative to help communities clean and redevelop properties that have been damaged or undervalued by environmental contamination. This page provides an historical overview of the munitions cleanup issues, prioritization protocols, and munitions-specific guidance.

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Issued as an Interim Final in , this document details EPA's guidelines which provide a framework to EPA Regional Offices overseeing responses involving munitions and explosives of concern MEC 1 and munitions constituents MC at locations other than operational ranges where explosive hazards or environmental contamination are known or suspected to be present. Handbook on the Management of Munitions Response Actions. Dated May , this interim final document, EPA B, has been written for regulators and the interested public to facilitate understanding of the wide variety of technical issues that surround the munitions response actions at current and former Department of Defense DoD facilities see text box below.

Munitions Response Site Prioritization Protocol. This protocol implements the requirement for DoD assign a relative priority for munitions responses to each location hereinafter MRS in the Department's inventory of defense sites known or suspected of containing unexploded ordnance UXO , discarded military munitions DMM , or munitions constituents MC Federal Register: October 5, [Rules and Regulations], Page Site Characterization For Munitions Constituents.

This EPA Federal Facilities Forum Issue Paper, dated January , was prepared to provide remedial project managers and other federal, state, and private personnel working on hazardous waste sites the technical information needed to make decisions regarding the nature of energetic residues on Department of Defense training ranges and other munitions sites such as Formerly Used Defense Sites , sampling strategies that provide representative samples, and analytical methods developed to characterize these samples.

This factsheet, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable FRTR , identifies and summarizes selected reports prepared by federal and state agencies to assist project managers in selecting and designing remediation technologies. Remediation Technology Demonstration Project Profiles. This web site provides information about remediation technology demonstration projects. The SITE Demonstration Program encourages the development and implementation of innovative treatment technologies for hazardous waste site remediation as well as monitoring and measurement technologies.

This document, dated May , describes the process for accomplishing remedial action completion, construction completion, site completion, partial deletion and site deletion for National Priorities List sites. This guidance addresses how sites are deleted from the NPL and the close out procedures. A map which indicates the location of all NPL sites in the US, the status of the site, and a fact sheet for each site.

This form is intended to provide general five-year review site information, a summary of issues and recommendations, and a summary of all required protectiveness determinations. Operation and Maintenance in the Superfund Program. This guidance provides information to the public and the regulated community on how EPA intends to exercise its discretion in implementing its regulations at contaminated sites. This Handbook is intended for EPA, other federal, local, and state cleanup project managers; communities, property owners, developers, and others with an interest in reusing potentially contaminated sites for renewable energy production.

This document summarizes the theoretical and empirical literature addressing benefit-cost and impact assessment of the cleanup and reuse scenario. Includes a summary of the benefits and limitations of the listed best practices. This document provides recommendations and guidelines for documentation and implementation of acceptable Quality Systems for Federal agencies. The guide encourages project managers to consider a mix of remedies, including dredging and disposing of sediment; capping it to limit further contamination; or allowing natural attenuation to let chemical contaminants in soil or groundwater to degrade naturally.

Notes: 1. This technology primer, EPA Document R, outlines the principles of green remediation and describes opportunities to reduce the footprint of cleanup activities throughout the life of a project. This paper, dated 6 May , provides an analysis of contaminated site LUC tracking systems at the federal, state, local, and private sector levels. RPO is a systematic approach for evaluating existing remediation systems with the goal of improving their effectiveness and reducing overall site cleanup costs without increasing risks.

Source Zone Treatment. The Source Zone Treatment technology roadmap is intended to assist environmental managers in identifying and applying more effective methods for remediating and managing sites with contamination source zones. A collection of technical fact sheets which provide brief summaries of contaminants of concern that present unique issues and challenges to the environmental community and EPA at contaminated federal facility sites. Emerging Contaminants Project. The intent of this USGS project is to provide information on these compounds for evaluation of their potential threat to environmental and human health.

Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket. This site contains information reported to EPA by federal facilities that manage hazardous waste or from which hazardous substances, pollutants or contaminants have been or may be released. EPA has established an official reference dose RfD of 0. Target Compounds. This list of emerging contaminants for the National Reconnaissance of Emerging Contaminants in US Streams see Emerging Contaminants Project is divided into the following categories: biogenics, pharmaceuticals, sterols, insecticides, plasticizers, detergant metabolites, fire retardents, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fossil fuel and fuel combusion indicators , antioxidants, tetracyclines, Fluoroquinolones, Macrolides, Sulfonamides, human prescription drugs, and miscellaneous others.

Tire Cleanup Guidebook. Developed by EPA Region 5 and the state of Illinois, the guidebook targets tire manufacturers, state and local government, regulators, auto recyclers and collectors. The pace of cleanup at federal facility Superfund sites can be delayed when Federal Facility Agreement FFA parties continue disputes beyond the agreed-upon dispute resolution timelines specified in negotiated FFAs.

Superfund Task Force Recommendations. This report highlights the accomplishments of the Superfund Task Force efforts and outlines next steps for the recommendations that remain open. The focus of this 2-hour EPA course is retrofitting stormwater management practices into watersheds that have already been developed. Asbestos Activities Training Classroom. Offered by Federal Occupational Health, classroom training is available related to asbestos abatement, asbestos inspection, asbestos operations and maintenance, and asbestos awareness.

This course is designed for individuals performing field sampling of environmental media including soil and other solids; surface and groundwater; sediment; indoor and ambient air; solid and hazardous waste; and chemicals of commerce for the analysis of a broad range of analytical methods as established by a variety of regulatory and standards organizations. This course provides an overview of the vapor intrusion exposure pathway including its scientific foundation, regulatory framework, and the technical aspects of investigating and remediating contaminated vapor sites.

This course will provide attendees with a wide array of analytical techniques available to fingerprint a variety of contaminants and to address the basic questions involved in any environmental forensics study. Offered by the Army Corps of Engineers, this course provides the student with a practical understanding of various containment, ex-situ, and in-situ technologies. Course number STAT discusses the core elements of the EPA's first major revision to its groundwater statistical guidance in almost 20 years.

Class will address the following aspects: data reduction for efficient assessment assessment of data validation output , compliance with regulatory and programmatic requirements, representativeness and completeness of the data set, fulfillment of data quality objectives, application and assessment of statistical methods in decision-making. Hosted by U. This two-day course includes an overview of key chemistry concepts associated with environmental contamination and provides a foundation for understanding contaminant fate and transport.


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  • This training course provides details of the structure and application of the revised HRS and information related to the preparation of HRS packages, including HRS score sheets, documentation records, and site summaries. This training course provides details of the structure and application of the revised HRS and information related to the preparation of HRS packages, including HRS scoresheets, documentation records, and site summaries.

    This introductory course is designed to provide participants with information concerning hydrogeological processes and the necessary elements of a sound groundwater site investigation.


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    • Bioremediation, for example, which involves breaking down contaminants through biological processes, is one of the most active areas of research and development. Properly cleaning up a contamination site often requires a technical solution. Environmental remediation is the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment or surface water. Pollution and contamination needs to be removed from the soil in order to protect human health as well as the environment.

      A recent court case provided a favorable ruling for consulting and engineering firms who provide environmental remediation services. In Geosyntec Consultants Inc. United States, F. One such project involved the design and expansion of a landfill and providing support services during construction. The goal was to increase the capacity of the landfill within its existing footprint. The landfill sat on a soft foundation, which limited its capacity for vertical expansion, but a previously-commissioned composite stability analysis of the landfill demonstrated that expansion was possible.

      Prior to beginning a remediation project, the site in question must be assessed to ascertain what types of contaminants are involved and to determine the most appropriate technologies for clean up. Assessments must be made to identify any potential hazards to the workers who will be working on the project and to assess the impact that pollution might have on the local community, as well as its overall environmental impact.

      Environmental engineers typically will conduct testing to determine the extent of pollution on the property. Common tests include groundwater testing, subsurface soil assessment, sediment testing, and assessment of pathways of contaminants in soil and groundwater.

      A successful treatment design for any given project requires a clear understanding of specific site conditions and available treatment solutions. Determining whether a cleanup project would be beneficial for any given region is a research project in itself. Part of the challenge is determining which methods for cleanup are most beneficial.

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      One example is the cleanup of the Gowanus Canal in Brooklyn. Residents believe the canal should be purged of pollutants like Polychlorinated Biphenyls PCBs , lead, mercury and raw sewage, but are fighting the methods the agency has chosen to accomplish this. One neighborhood fears that the sludge taken out from the canal would poison the air over their ball fields, and others worry that the location of a sewage-processing site needed for the cleanup would destroy a popular public swimming pool.

      The selection of the most effective remedial design is critical to the success of any project. Design and engineering firms offer cutting edge analysis and feasibility studies of various remedial actions and their effectiveness on any given site and the surrounding environment. The latest software programs use site data inputs to create accurate simulations of the effect of any given treatment option available.

      Plasma Remediation Technology for Environmental Protection | Changming Du | Springer

      The main advantage of in situ or on-site treatment is that it allows soil to be treated without being excavated and transported, resulting in potentially significant cost savings. There are many different types of in situ treatment techniques. These categories generally include biological, physical, thermal, and chemical treatment methods. During air sparging, air bubbles disperse horizontally and vertically through the saturated and unsaturated zones, creating an underground process that removes contaminants by enabling the transfer of hydrocarbons from a dissolved or adsorbed state to a vapor phase.

      This technique is especially useful in environments that have proven resistant to conventional remediation technologies or where the application of physical or chemical solutions is simply too costly. Bioremediation works in either one of two ways: Providing natural, pollution-eating microbes living at the contaminated site with fertilizer, oxygen, and other conditions to encourage their rapid growth or Adding specialized microbes to the environment to degrade pollutants.

      Ex situ remediation is the process of treating polluted soil after it has been removed from the contaminated site. Here, the contaminated media is first excavated or extracted and then moved to the process location for treatment. Many of the same techniques that are used with in situ treatment are also common to ex situ treatment.

      The main advantage of ex situ treatments is that they generally require shorter time periods, and there is more certainty about the uniformity of treatment because of the ability to screen, homogenize, and continuously mix the contaminated media. Some innovative thermal treatment technologies as described by the EPA are discussed below. Ex situ thermal desorption involves the application of heat to excavated wastes to volatilize organic contaminants and water.

      Typically, a carrier gas or vacuum system transports the volatilized water and organics to a treatment system, such as a thermal oxidation or recovery unit. The gas effluent from the material is treated in an afterburner system to destroy all volatilized contaminants.

      This method permits the reuse or disposal of scrap as nonhazardous material.

      Microbe chews through PFAS and other tough contaminants

      Plasma high-temperature recovery uses a thermal treatment process applied to solids and soils that purges contaminants as metal fumes and organic vapors. The vapors can be burned as fuel, and the metals can be recovered and recycled. Pyrolysis is defined as chemical decomposition by heat in the absence of oxygen. The target contaminant groups for pyrolysis are SVOCs and pesticides. The process is applicable for the separation of organics from refinery wastes, coal tar wastes, wood-treating wastes, creosote-contaminated soils, hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, radioactive and hazardous wastes, synthetic rubber processing wastes, and paint waste.